Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. By: anandgoudar month s ago. By: pankajpatel month s ago. By: ssreddy month s ago. By: essreddy month s ago. These have not been used for commercial purpose but for educational use only. Or various schemes which are used for crossing or mating of individuals. Anther - stigma distance is a useful measure of mating system. Anther stigma distance determine if the mating system differed between the two species For example. Braya longii worked by Kim Parson Ref — www. Ison Ref — www. Such developmental changes can result in mating systems among populations For example… Collinsia spp. By Susan Kalisz primary research Ref — www. For example…. Collinsia heterophylla 2. The outcome of this cryptic interactions determines the mating system. Form of outbreeding In plant breeding some form of selection is practised such mating system called as random mating with selection With selection — 1. Increases frequency of alleles for which selection is practised 2. Reduces frequency of other alleles 3. Increases variance 4. Correlation between relatives or prepotency — constant 4. Genetic variability a. Without selection — 1. Total variability among lines increased 2. Total variability within lines decrease due to random fixation of genes in different families. With selection — 1. Population mean - Reduced due to decrease in number of hybrid genotypes which have more number of dominant genes. Genetic correlation — Increased due to increase in prepotency. Commonly called as outbreeding. Totally unrelated individuals are mated. These individuals belongs to different populations. Variability — Increased due to combining of two or more genes from two or more different sources.
Mating system in animals pdf
Breeding means, the manner in which selected males and females are mated. Breeding makes new combination or sequencing of genes in the individual. The breeders identify and select desirable qualities in animals for future mating and discard less desirable qualities. Continuous selective breeding leads to homozygosity in a population resulting a loss of variability. If all the individuals are alike, the breeder cannot make progress in future. Hence, there is a need to create a variability in population. This can be achieved by breeding. Therefore, selection and breeding go hand in hand for the improvement of live stock. Under the selected breeding system selected males and females are mated. The breeding system can be classified into five different ways depending on their phenotypic and genotypic relations. It is a system of mating in which each male individual has an equal opportunity to mate with the female individual and vice versa. This mating system generally takes place in nature where the number of males and females are assumed to be equal. In this type of mating animals which are phenotypically alike are allowed to mate among themselves. Here individuals which are phenotypically unlike are allowed to mate. For example, mating of tall with short individuals. In this system individuals, which are closely related genetically are allowed to mate. This is also known as inbreeding. This system is just opposite to the previous system where mating takes place between less closely related individuals. This is also called as out breeding. Inbreeding leads to lower birth weight, post natal mortality baby death after birthpoor growth, reproductive disorder and low resistance to diseases. It is opposite of inbreeding where unrelated individuals are mated. The breeding individuals have relationship less than the average relationship of the population. Out-breeding increases heterozygosity which results in hybrid vigour increase in weight, faster growth, increased resistance to disease, low mortality. Top Menu BiologyDiscussion. Essay on Beekeeping in India. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Answer Now and help others.
Mating systems in plants ppt
Monogamy mating system in animals
Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. By: mbeyagala month s ago. Hello, can have a copy of this presentation titled mating system and response to selection? Anther - stigma distance is a useful measure of mating system. Anther stigma distance determine if the mating system differed between the two species Ref — www. Form of outbreeding In plant breeding some form of selection is practiced such mating system called as random mating with selection With selection — 1. Increases frequency of alleles for which selection is practiced 2. Reduces frequency of other alleles 3. Increases variance 4. Random mating with selection increases the frequency of alleles for which selection is practiced and reduces the frequency of other alleles. Random mating with selection alters the gene frequency and population mean, but has little effect on homozygosity, population variance and genetic correlation between Relatives. Random mating without selection does not change gene frequency, variability, population mean and genetic correlation between relatives in a population……………. Genetic variability of the population is increased but within line is reduced under selection. The Prepotency of individuals increases under inbreeding. Prepotency is the property of an individual to produce……………………. Prepotency : Prepotency Prepotency is the property of an individual to produce progeny which are similar to each other and to parent. Progeny Progeny Has more prepotency Prepotency : Prepotency Prepotency is affected by: Homozygosity Dominance Epistasis Linkage Homozygosity is the most important factor and is under the control of the breeder. As homozygosity increases the prepotency of the individuals also increases. An individual completely homozygous for all the dominant allele will be most Prepotent. Commonly called as outbreeding.
Mating systems in birds ppt
Developing a mating system that optimizes profitability for a commercial beef operation can be tricky. To complicate the issue these factors do not function independently and there are interactions to consider. As with all aspects of beef cattle management a game plan should be developed and implemented with the ultimate goal of profitability. The revenue generating components of the beef operation should be a consideration for almost all decisions that will be made and developing a mating system is no exception. The typical sources of revenue for most commercial operations are calves marketed in various ways, and cull cows and bulls. Decisions that are made in developing mating systems can have huge impacts on both of these sources of revenue. How the calf crop is marketed should be one of the major factors determining a mating system. When considering these two extremes it is easy to see that the producers selling weaned calves would need to focus on reproduction and factors affecting weaning weight; the producers selling carcasses will also have to consider reproduction, but carcass quality and weight are now the value determinants for the product being sold. The relative importance of maternal versus paternal traits is greatly influenced by when and how the calves will be marketed. Another consideration would be whether the end target is commodity beef or a branded product. All of these factors can be addressed with the proper mating system. Factors such as mature size and replacement rate determine how much income is generated through the sale of cull animals, but both of these factors have some significant consequences to be considered. The other factor of mature size is typically a secondary effect of genetics for calf growth; high growth calves typically develop into large mature cows and are produced by large bulls. The management implication to be aware of is that larger cows have higher maintenance requirements. Heterosis typically has the greatest impact on lowly heritable traits such as reproduction and longevity. With the limited impact of heterosis on carcass traits, some retained ownership operations may be inclined to forego crossbreeding. Although the impact of reproduction and longevity may be lessened somewhat in a retained ownership operation, they still have a significant impact on profitability and should not be ignored. The genetic trends of the major beef breeds in the US indicate that the breeds are more similar for most production traits than they were historically. Growth and milk have dramatically increased in the British breeds making them more similar to the Continental breeds and likewise the Continental breeds have placed negative pressure on birth weight to reduce the gap with the British breeds. The impact on carcass characteristics is less clear, but most breeds have applied positive pressure to improve marbling. It is critical to assess the positive and negative characteristics of the breeds being considered and find the balance that is optimal to meeting your market and management plans. Once many of the other decisions are made regarding the mating system selection tools can be used to fine tune the process. Management, marketing and crossbreeding decisions tend to be broad based and not targeted at individual aspects. Selection tools on the other hand can be used to create the specific animal to fit a particular environment and be marketed in a specific way. The traits under consideration for change are typically classified in one of two ways: quantitative or qualitative traits. Quantitative traits are traits that are controlled by multiple genes and greatly influenced by the environmental conditions, including management. These are typically the production traits, for example: growth traits, milking ability, fertility and carcass traits.
Polygyny mating system
After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Click to allow Flash After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Mating System. Description: Department of Animal Tags: animal crossbreeding mating system. Latest Highest Rated. New Animal,??? Pure breed, native animal 4. Up grading 5. Avoidable Inbreeding 6. Non - random mating??? Inbreeding Outbreeding 10 Inbreeding Inbreeding??? Inbreeding depression??????? Outcrossing Crossbreeding Linecrossing Grading up Species cross hybridization ass horse mule????????????????????????????? Outcrossing Crossbreeding Linecrossing Grading up Species cross hybridization??????????????????????????????????????? Numerator relationship Additive generic relationship 28 Inbreeding Relationship evaluation 2. Hybrid vigor????????????????????????????????????????????? Breed complementary?????????????????????????????? Genotype effects Genotype Effect???????? XX Xx xx 80 50 ???????????????? Additive gene effects Allele Effect???????? X x 40 ???? HV heterosis value???? Breed heterosis??????????????????????? Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
Mating systems are descriptions of who mates with whom in the animal world. In simplest terms, definitions of mating systems are based on how many mates an individual acquires during the breeding season. In monogamy, both males and females have only one mate at a time. This type of mating system often occurs in species in which both the male and female are required to successfully raise young or in which males have little chance of monopolizing more than one female. Monogamy is common in birds whose males can help incubate eggs and feed young. In a polygamous mating system, individuals of one or the other sex have more than one mate during the breeding season. When males in the population mate with more than one female, it is called polygyny poly means "many," and gyne means "female". Males compete for females, and this leads to strong selection for traits that either attract females for example, elaborate songs or calls, bright coloration, and courtship displays or allow males to compete effectively with other males for example, aggressiveness, large size, and fighting aids such as antlers. Polygyny is common in species where males are less likely to provide parental care and thus may increase their A male frigate bird with its throat pouch inflated to attract females. Mammalian mating systems are predominantly polygynous, in part because young develop within and are then nursed by the female. In polyandry andros means "male"some females mate with more than one male during the breeding season. This is the rarest type of mating system. Females compete for males and may be larger and more colorful than males. In the spotted sandpiper, for example, females compete for territories in order to attract males. Once a male mates with a female, she lays a clutch of eggs that the male incubates. The female will then attempt to attract additional males for whom she will also lay eggs. In addition to the number of mates an individual acquires during the breeding season, mating systems have also been described in terms of whether a pair bond is formed, how long the pair bond lasts, and how much each member of the pair contributes to care of the young, resulting in more complex definitions. Mating systems are also complicated by the fact that individuals of some species perform extra-pair copulations, which are copulations with individuals other than the mate. Evidence from deoxyribonucleic acid DNA studies of birds, mammals, and other species has shown that extra-pair copulations can result in fertilized eggs so that a presumably "monogamous" male or female may in fact have more than one mate. Which mating system evolves is influenced by the relative parental investment of each sex and the ability of one sex to monopolize members of the opposite sex, which in turn may be driven by the abundance and distribution of resources such as food or nesting sites. Because resources vary among and within habitats, this leads to variation in mating systems, even within species. An excellent example of this is the mating system of the dunnock, a European songbird. The amount of food available affects the size of the area over which a female must forage, and this in turn affects how many females can be monopolized by one male and how many males can be attracted by a female. Within a single population of dunnocks, there may be monogamous pairs as well as birds in polygynous and polyandrous relationships.
Mating system in birds
Resource defense polygyny Leks Female defense polygyny. Male s defends an area to which females are attracted Males and females in many of these species maintain long-term social bonds. Some are comprised of multi-male groups in which males are genetically related and cooperate at high rates Ex. Male black-winged damselfies wait for females to come to them, defending territories that contain the kind of aquatic vegetation in which females prefer to lay their eggs Where females eave natal herd, often thought to be resource defense polygyny. Sometimes leks comprised of males who are close reatives. Male s defends a group of females that are already social for other ecological reasons Female 'puts up' with another female because of male's resources Females form the stable core of the group, independent of any attributes the group's males might have. Males migrate, females remain in the groups in which they were born. Bighorn rams go where potential mates are and then fight with other males to monopolize females there. Female group size or range may be too big for a male to defend alone Males may benefit by cooperating e. Cooperative groups with reproductive suppression of. Only the dominant female in the group breeds. Occasional polyandrous breeding. Polyandry is inherently unstable. Shared Flashcard Set. Title Animal Behavior; Mating Systems. Total Cards Subject Biology. Level Undergraduate 3. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Supporting users have an ad free experience!
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Whole lecture - Mating Systems